<img height="1" width="1" style="display:none;" alt="" src="https://dc.ads.linkedin.com/collect/?pid=217082&amp;fmt=gif">

Post-Operative Pain


The Post-Operative Pain Model in Pigs

Post-operative pain management is a major challenge for clinicians and patients. Unrelieved post-operative pain management causes patient suffering and discomfort, and can promote psychological and pathophysiological obstacles (Castel et al., 2014). While therapeutic agents and analgesic techniques are available, a large number of patients report moderate to severe pain following surgery. For this reason, it is essential to continue researching analgesic treatments for post-operative pain. 


Rodents have been the model of choice for the development of new treatments for acute pain, however, several limitations exist. Rodents are not useful for assessing topical and localized treatments, the anatomy of the skin differs from human skin, and healing occurs by wound contraction. Since pigs share similarities with human skin and heal by epidermal cell migration, MD Biosciences Neuro has characterized a porcine model for post-operative pain (POP) through skin incision and skin and muscle incision and retraction. 


Advantages of the POP Model in Pigs

  • Reproducibility 
  • Mimics human condition
  • Monitoring of PK/PD 
  • Routes and volumes of administration relevant to humans 
  • Understanding of safety/PD/PK using the same animals


Common Assessments

  • Withdrawal force 
  • Composite behavior score 
  • Open field
  • Approaching time
  • In vivo electrophysiology 

Request Study Proposal



Sex Differences 

In the last decade, it has been shown that women are more susceptible to post-operative pain than men (Lau & Patil, 2004; Nadi et al., 2019., Zheng et al., 2017, Mogil 2020). This suggests that women are more sensitive to pain and less tolerant to therapeutics compared to men. Using our POP model in pigs, we found that females are more sensitive to males, highlighting the importance of using both sexes in the study of pain. (Download poster here). 


MD Biosciences Neuro POP Publications 

POP in Minipigs

Incisional Pain in Pigs



POP in Pigs




Contact Us




  • Lau and Patil. Acute pain after endoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernioplasty: multivariate analysis of predictive factors Surg Endosc (2004) 18: 92–96
  • Nandi et al., Sex differences in negative affect and postoperative pain in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty Nandi et al. Biology of Sex Differences (2019) 10:23
  • Zheng et al., Age and preoperative pain are major confounders for sex differences in postoperative pain outcome: A prospective database analysis PLOS ONE |,( 2017) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178659 June 6
  • Mogil Qualitative sex differences in pain processing: emerging evidence of a biased literature Nature Review (2020) 21: 353-356
  • Castel et al., Characterization of a porcine model of post operative pain. Eur J Pain. (2014) Apr;18(4):496-505.
Request Study Proposal